The California Coastal Commission, comprised of 12 voting members appointed equally by the Governor, the Senate Rules Committee, and the Speaker of the Assembly, was created by voter initiative in 1972 and was made permanent by the California Coastal Act of 1976 (Coastal Act). The Coastal Act calls for the protection and enhancement of public access and recreation, marine resources, environmentally sensitive habitat areas, marine water quality, agriculture, and scenic resources, and makes provisions for coastal-dependent industrial and energy development. New development in the coastal zone requires a coastal permit either from local government or the Commission. Local governments are required to prepare a local coastal program (LCP) for the coastal zone portion of their jurisdiction. After an LCP has been reviewed and approved by the Commission as being consistent with the Coastal Act, the Commission's regulatory authority over most types of new development is delegated to the local government, subject to limited appeals to the Commission. The Commission also is designated the principal state coastal management agency for the purpose of administering the federal Coastal Zone Management Act in California and has exclusive regulatory authority over federal activities such as permits, leases, federal development projects, and other federal actions that could affect coastal zone resources and that would not otherwise be subject to state control.